Article No. 1: Curriculum Planning and Systems Change

Curriculum Planning is a process of making decisions on what are the things that are essential for the learners to learn and essential for teachers to teach. In the implementation of Curriculum Planning teachers play an important role because teachers are capable of developing life-long learners. And these curriculum planning come from the viewpoint of systems theory.

Teachers play an important role in curriculum planning because aside from being capable of developing life-long learners, through also their knowledge and experiences they can give a better learning experience to students. And also, they can develop their own curriculum materials and put these materials into practice with students. In addition, through teachers, curriculum planning will be successful.

Aside from the teachers, their are also other people who are involved in curriculum planning, like the administrators. Administrators are the one who make sure that teachers have the resources in delivering the curriculum effectively. And also, they are the one that think of ways when it comes in improving the curriculum.

Now, will be talking about the purpose of schooling. Schooling helps students to develop their higher level of thinking and help them discover their talents and enhances their skills. Schooling also, educate students about the information that they need to acquire in order to keep up from the changes in society. In addition, schooling doesn't only help students to be academically competent but they also help students to be morally literate. Being morally literate in a sense of having a positive attitude in interacting with other people.

How well does the curriculum prepare students to meet the current and future challenges of the social and political order?
Curriculum prepare students by teaching them not only to be academically competent but also enhances their different skills and abilities in order to be fully equipped in dealing with the challenges that they'll encounter as the society changes.


Lesson 1.3: Curriculum Design

Learning Task 1.3

Direction: Answer the following questions on your e-portfolio.

1. Name other subjects or disciplines as example of subject design.
- History, Physical Education, Social Science, Filipino

2. Name other subjects or disciplines as example of the different types of integrated curriculum design.
- History, Geography

3. Give some advantages and possible pitfalls of subject design and integrated design.
- In subject design the curriculum in the primary level are arranged in terms of subjects. With this, one of the advantage of it is, it can result a smooth flow of discussion. The teaching and learning process will be guided accordingly and learners can gain new learnings. And aside from that, it is also advantage in subject design to easily determine the things that learners can acquire in a particular subject. And the possible pitfalls of subject design is, it can be complex and this design might just focus on feeding the mental cognition of learner and don't give too much focus on students interest and experiences. On the other hand, the advantage of integrated design is it can help students acquire knowledge that is essential in dealing with real-life situation and problems. The possible pitfalls is students might have difficulty in understanding things because of their immaturity.

4. Name some schools nearby you that use a Learner-Centered curriculum.
- San Roque Elementary School Tolosa, Leyte.

5. How do students learn in a Learner-Centered curriculum?
- Learners in a Learner-Centered curriculum learn on their own by allowing themselves went out from their comfort zone and explore new things. They can also learn by interacting with other students and being participative.

6. What re one benefits of having a learner centered curriculum?
- Some benefits of having a learner centered curriculum is learner are able to develop themselves. It enhances the different skills and abilities of every learner. And it helps learner to be fully equip in facing real life situation and help them keep up from the changes in society.

7. Having a learner-centered curriculum in mind answer the following questions below:
• What possible skills, knowledge, and values are emphasized in the curriculum?
- Cognitive thinking skills and creative thinking skills. In learner-centered curriculum the main focus of it, is the students learning. It helps learner to be independent and explore new things on their own. And some of the skills that can emphasized on this curriculum are cognitive thinking skills and creative thinking skills. Learner-Centered curriculum enhances the cognitive thinking skills of students since some of the activities in these curriculum allows student to wet out from their comfort zone and discover new things. An creative thinking skills are also enhanced for it allows students to be creative and innovative in dealing with their problems. In addition, Learner-Centered curriculum also teaches students to have a positive attitude in socializing with other people.
• What possible learning experiences can be provided?
- Individual learning experiences is being provided in learner-centered curriculum. It enable learners to acquire knowledge, skills and abilities tht is a essential weapon in dealing with the advancement of society.
• What about the learning environment?
- Learning in learner-centered curriculum doesn't only happen in the four corner of classroom but it also happens anywhere. Learner-Centered allows students explore things on their own. And they can learn on their home and on their community.
•What are the requirements of the curriculum for teachers?
- In curriculum it requires teachers to create an amazing activities and interactive games in order to develop the fullest potential of learners.

8. Name a school nearby that use problem-centered design.
- San Roque Elementary School Tolosa, Leyte.

9. Name some benefits and issues related to its implementation.
- Some benefits of problem-centered design is it enable students solve problems in order for them to be fully equipped in facing real world situation. While some of the issues were students might not be prepared with a particular problem. If teachers give some problem and ask students to find a solution, sometimes students may find it hard in finding solutions. It is because of immaturity. They are not mature enough and they still lack of experience. But then, with the help and guide of a teacher, they'll be able to overcome their immaturity.

10. Identify some current issues and problems that can be used as a theme for a problem-based curriculum.
- Some of the current issues and problems that can be used as a theme for a problem-based curriculum is lack of engagement of students and lack of collaboration. Because of their immaturity and unpreparedness it result for them not to be active in learning process. But these things can still be overcome and it is on the teacher on what are the strategies that they will use to overcome the problem.

Module 2: Curriculum Development and Implementation


Learning Task

1. Choose a linear curriculum development model and identify the possible strengths and weaknesses of each model when applied to the Philippine context.

- Tyler's Rational linear model. The possible strength of these model is, it have a simple illustration of model. Compare to other model, you can easily interpret Tyler's model. The possible weakness of these model is that, it is fixed and it might lack in educating students about real-life situations.

2. Choose a cyclical curriculum development model and identify the possible strengths and weaknesses of each model when applied to the Philippine context.

- Nicholl's and Nicholl's Model of Curriculum Development. The possible strength of these model is, it provide a relevant and timely information that students need to acquire. Which is important in order for the students to keep up from the changes in the society and be able to be aware about the possible problems that they might encounter in the future. The possible weakness of these model is it might be time consuming. Because it takes time to develop the curriculum since they will need first to analyze and evaluate things.

3. Which among these dynamic curriculum development models can be applied in the Philippine context.

- Skilbeck's curriculum development model can be applied in the Philippine context. It is because his model allows curriculum workers to be creative and he also include practical problems. Which is a great help for students. It is because teaching practical problems to students help them to be fully equip in dealing with real-life situations and enables them to be mature.

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Lesson 2.2: Curriculum Implementation

Learning Task

Interview a DepEd teacher about their process of school level curriculum implementation practices. Use the roles and functions identified on this lesson. Determine teacher roles as a curriculum worker on your e-portfolio.

Teachers are the daily implementors of planned curriculum. They prepare instructional materials, formulate strategies and assess students learning.
According to the teacher that I have interviewed, before the pandemic they are using the K-12 curriculum and because of the pandemic they are now using a different curriculum, which is the MELC. They unpack the MELC and create different strategies aside from modular. They crafted some assessment taken from the module and MELC for easier understanding. And their are also an Aral TV program. On the second face of pandemic they now use modular and home visitation.
Based on the interview, I observed that teachers doesn't plainly discuss the curriculum. Instead, they use different strategies in order to deliver the curriculum in a creative way.


Article - The Instrument Developed to Evaluate Local Curriculum in Indonesia

1. In what way is Indonesia's educational system and the Philippines similar?
- In my perspective, the educational system of Indonesia and Philippines is similar when it comes to integrating the different cultures and diversity of people in school. In school we are being taught about the different cultures that we have and gives us knowledge about the indigenous people, the things that they do and their culture. Where because of this, every learners be able to understand and give importance to the differences of people. In addition, just like in Indonesia the learning activities here in Philippines started on elementary and they both also have curriculum evaluation.
2. Summarize the methodology used in evaluating a curriculum.
- In the study they used questionnaire as their instrument. Where, this questionnaire have been developed and validated by experts. And also, this instrument is used in order to evaluate local curriculum implementation developed by the local government. The data were collected with the used of Focus Group Discussion (FGD) techniques with 14 participants consisting 6 vice principals and 8 local curriculum teachers. The trials here were conducted 2 times, in small and large-scale trial. The sample used in the study are the senior high school students who implement the local curriculum. And the sampling technique is purposive sampling. They used purposive sampling in order to select samples correctly.
3. What tools where used to derive results?
- In order to derive results the study used questionnaire as the tool.
4. What did the evaluators found out from the results of the study?
- The evaluators found out that of the 60 items developed, there are only 50 items that could be used to evaluate the local curriculum, consisting of 22 items from the resource factor, 15 items from the process factor and 13 items from the output factor.
5. What conclusion can you draw the study?
- In a nutshell, the study were good. The instruments in the study were used effectively. It enables them acquire relevant and accurate informations about local government. Through also the table that was being shown on the study they'll be able to formulate results easily.

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