Brentley Dorsainvil, Maria Aranguren, Jailyn Garcia, Alex Gonzalez Jr.


What is Judaism?

Judaism is a religious tradition originated as the beliefs and practices of people known as “Israel.” It traces its heritage to the covenant God made with Abraham and his lineage that God would make them a sacred person and give them a holy land. The Torah contains five books: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. The four main movements within Judaism today are Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, and Reconstructionist, respectively ranging from traditional to liberal to religiously progressive in their application of Torah. The Old Testament of the Bible for Christians is the Bible for the Jewish people, which they call Tanakh, Which is short for three divisions of the Deuteronomy. After the destruction of the second temple and Israelites were all over the place, rabbinic scholars from different centers started to read different commentaries and they were known as Talmuds, or “learning.” The way of interpreting the biblical Texas called Midrash. Shabbat is a day of rest and celebration that begins on Friday at sunset and ends on the following evening after nightfall. Jewish people remember the story of creation from the Torah where God created the world in 6 days and rested on the 7th day.

Jewish Signs and Symbols


The meaning of the word and symbol Chai means “life”, or “living.” For Jews this symbolizes the value of life and the hope that supports it. It may also represent the will to live and it serves as a reminder to live and protect life.


This is the Hebrew word for the skullcap traditionally worn by Jewish men. After the star of David they are probably one of the most recognizable symbols of Jewish identity. wearing a kippah is not a religious commandment. Rather it is a Jewish custom that overtime has come to be associated with Jewish identity and showing respect for God.


A dreidel is a toy with a four sided spinning top with a Hebrew letter printed on each side. It is usually used during Hanukkah to play a popular children’s game.


A candelabra used in the religious rituals of Judaism, that has been an important symbol in both ancient and modern Israel. This is used by Jews in rites during the eight-day festival of Hanukkah.


A mezuzah is a small folded or rolled parchment inscribed by a qualified calligraphist with scriptural versus to remind Jews of their obligations towards God. A mezuzah serves two functions, every time you enter or leave, the mezuzah reminds you that you have a covenant with God, second the mezuzah services symbol to everyone else that this particular dwelling is constituted as a Jewish household operating by special set of rules, rituals, and beliefs


Ritual musical instrument made from the horn of a ram or other animal, used an important Jewish public and religious occasions. The most important modern use of the shofar in religious ceremonies takes place on Rosh Hashanah, when it is sounded in the synagogue called the Jewish people

Star of David

A Jewish symbol that appears on synagogues, Jewish tombstone, and the flag of the state of Israel. According to the Zohar, a medieval book of Jewish mysticism, the six points of the star represent the six male sefirot (attributes of God), in union with the seventh sefirah of the female (the center of the shape).

Tallit & Tzitzit

The word tzitzit is literally defined as “fringes,” and refers to the strings attached to the corners of the tallit, the Jewish prayer shawl.


a pair of black leather boxes containing Hebrew parchment scrolls. One for the head and one for the arm. The Torah commands Jewish men to bind tefillin onto their head and upper arm every weekday, in fulfillment of the verse (Deut. 6:8), “You shall bind them as a sign upon your hand, and they shall be for a reminder between your eyes.”

Torah scroll and Yad

The yad is the pointer used by the reader to indicate the place during the reading of the Torah. In order to ensure that the scroll would not be touched by the bare hands because of its sanctity, the rabbis enacted that hands which touch the scroll become unclean in the second degree

History of Judaism



Biblical Period

Within this period, Abraham is called to leave his country and by doing so he will become the “fathers of all nations”. In 120 BCE Moses frees the Hebrew people and leads them back to the promise land. By 722 BCE the division between the north and south kingdoms cause Jews fall into idolatry and Israel was taken by the Assyrian.


Rabbinic Period

168 BCE the Greeks reclaimed the temple and the Hebrew bible was translated to Greek, this is called Septuagint. Later on the Romans destroyed to temple in Jerusalem, many Sadducee and Pharisees left but rabbis gain popularity. The most respectable schools were the schools of rabbis Shammani and Hillel. In 130 Simon and Kociba led a revolt, which was shut down by Hadrian. Hadrian later later renamed Judaea to Palestine and bans Jews from entering.


Medieval Period

638 many Jews lived in Europe, Rabbi Shlomo, gave his commentary on the Bible and Talmud. Another well known Jewish figure is Mose Maimonides, a philosopher who argued that there was no contradiction between philosophy of Aristotle and Jewish religion. 1099 Jews went to reclaim the holy land many were killed in battle.1492 Jews were banish from Spain under the rule of Isabella and Ferdinand, they want Spain to be for Christians.


Modern Period

1783 Jews stared to gain equality, however Czar Alexander III form the May Laws and forge a document called “The protocols of the Learned Elders Of Zion“, which states
that this document had conspiracy that Jews would take over. 1930s reconstruction Judaism came about form conservative Judaism, they saw Judaism more as a culture and not just a religion,from this Jewish nationalism emerged, also known as Zionism. 1967 Israel recaptures Jerusalem, due to the 6 Day War. After the war holy places were for all and Palestine was returned to the Jews.

Jewish Holidays & Festivals



The Jewish festival lasts eight days and is characterized by the lighting of eight candles in a row. Hanukkah begins on Sunday, November 28th, and ends on Monday, December 6th, in the evening.


Rosh Hashanah

The Jewish New Year is commemorated on this holiday. Rosh Hashanah begans on Monday, September 6th, and finished on Wednesday, September 8th, in the


Yom Kippur

A ritual in which you wave a chicken three times over your head, slaughter it, and give it to the poor. Yom Kippur begins on Wednesday, September 15th, and ends on
Thursday, September 16th, in the evening.



A Jewish festival that lasts eight days and commemorates the Israelites' departure from Egypt. Passover begins on Friday, April 15 in the evening and ends on Saturday, April 23 in the evening.



Moses receiving the Ten Commandments is commemorated on the sixth of Sivan, a Jewish holy day. The 'Festival of Weeks' is another name for it. Shavuot begins on Saturday, June 4th, and ends on Monday, June 6th, in the evening.


Yom HaShoah

Holocaust Memorial Day, a day set aside to commemorate the Holocaust's victims. It's the week after the Passover holiday has ended. On April 12, 1951, Israel's Parliament chose the date.



This Jewish festival commemorates Queen Esther's role in saving the Jewish people from extermination. Purim begins on Wednesday, March 16th, and ends on Thursday, March 17th, in the evening.



The Biblical period of wandering in the desert is commemorated with the Festival of Booths. Sukkot begins on Monday, September 20 in the evening and ends on Monday, September 27 in the evening.

Sacred Places

There are two sacred places for Jews within Jerusalem. The first one is Temple Mount, the temple that is shared by Christians, Jews, and Muslims. The Temple Mount, also known as Har Habayit in Hebrew, which is said to be the location of where Abraham showed his devotion to God by trying to sacrifice his only son, Issac.
Another sacred place for Jews is Mount Olives, also found in Jerusalem. The Mount of Olives is a significant and meaningful landmark that dates back to biblical times and is significant to both Jews and Christians. This mount has been used as a Jewish cemetery for over 3,000 years, with over 150,000 graves. This cemetery has been used as a Jewish burial site since biblical times and along with it came sites of most biblical kings we know today.

Types of Judaism

Conservative, Reform, and Orthodox Judaism

Reform Judaism

Reform Judaism arose when Jews began to integrate into the contemporary world and sought a means to connect with their neighbors. Reform Judaism is the most liberal branch of modern Judaism. In order to adapt to the social, cultural, and political situation of the modern world, Reform Judaism has either abandoned or revised numerous traditional Jewish religious observances. The concept that the laws and rituals in the modern world were derived from movement. In their prayers, Jews shortened instrumental music in their hopes of a personal messiah who would bring them back to the Land of Israel. Judaism began to expand once it was first introduced. The Reformers rejected the Bible's requirement for strict observance. Germany had introduced the German service and had made worship possible.

Conservative Judaism

Conservative Judaism relates to those who have identical views on Reform Judaism although they dislike certain positions within its concept. People then created a movement called the Conservative Judaism because of how they were willing to accept the change. Judaism, as a religion that has been evolving in history, emphasizes the preservation of Jewish law in accordance with contemporary reality and the constant encounters of each generation with God. Conservative Jews
believe that traditional conservative Jews can be persecuted, while moderate conservative Jews, such as traditional Jewish religious law
and Jewish elements beyond traditional
can be modernized. Orthodox Jews observe many rituals, such as dietary regulations, but they also appoint women as rabbis.

Orthodox Judaism

Orthodox Judaism is a tradition that contains written law, such as the Bible, as well as oral law, which includes Talmudic teachings and writings by rabbis and teachers of Judaism. Conventional Jews accept the Bible's account as the Talmud's and afterward Standard Judaism has its hones, staying to supplications and ceremonies, male and female forbids instrumental music requires strict observance of Moses' disclosure at Sinai, as well codes of Jewish law, as authoritative. stood up to present day weights to alter every day revere, dietary laws, conventional customary and seriously Torah consider, and partition within the synagogue. It too amid communal administrations and of the sabbath and devout celebrations.