The Teacher and the SchooL Curriculum


Kristal Jaen A. Kempis

Learning Task 2.1

Change is the only constant in our lives, everything in this world constatnly change, which brings people to adopt to those changes. In the field of education, changes definitely appears which means that there should also be changes in the curriculum as a form of adaptation. The reform of the curriculum requires a thorough planning for its effectiveness when implemented in the school level. Thus, teachers having the first hand contact with students, knows the best approaches for the students learning, given that students has diverse learning styles. According to the article authored by Zongyi Deng, entitled "Curriculum Changes and Systems Change", teachers can participate in what is called school-based curriculum development (SBCD) in which they articulate their own visions and goals of teaching, develop their own curriculum materials in the light of their visions and goals, and put the materials into practice with students. However, this does not mean that teachers could completely ignore the existence of curriculum goals and instructional guidelines developed at the national or state level. Administrators as well who are experts has key roles in the curriculum planning, since they are the ones who lead towards the improvement of the learning environment and the over all academic growth of the students. With all the effort in the curriculum planning, there exist the reasons why students are bound to go to school and learn. Jose Rizal said that children is the hope of the nation, where effective education in terms of curriculum development embodies how Jose Rizal wanted the children to be. Education is the key to success, not only to the student itslef but as well as to the succes of the society. Hence, schooling, an effective schooling is a very critical process to come up with productive students. The curriculum prepare students very well to meet the current and the future challenges of the social and political order, being the force that brought to bear at the school or classroom level. Curriculum generally aimed to prepeare students in all aspects of life even with changes that appears which leads to the reform, starting from curriculum planning becoming a total change in the system.

Learning Task 1.3

1. Name other subjects or disciplines as examples of subject design.
- Hekasi
- ​EPP

2. Name other subjects or disciplines as examples of the different types of integrated curriculum design.
- Filipino, Wika
- Statistics, Algebra, Trigonometry, Calculus
- History, Geography, Literature

3. Give some advantages and possible pitfalls of subject design and integrated design.
-​Subject design is good in a way that subjects are being taught individually which avoids confusion to the students, but it limits the students to deeply learn the subtopics of the subject content since the subject is generally taught. Meanwhile intergated design allow students to be competent in this generation, being able to learn related subjects or disciplines integrated to one onther but it can also give students a confusion on the process of learning.

4. Name some schools nearby you that use a learner-centered curriculum.
- Dulag National High School

5. How do students learn in a learner-centered curriculum?
- In a learner-centered curriculum, students learn from their own discovery within their own phase of learning, they also acquire knowledge or learning from their classmates.

6. What are some benefits of having a learner-centered curriculum?
- Learner-centered curriculum gives the students the freedom on to learn on their own which gives them a life long learning being able to experience the actual learning. They are able to share their learnings to others inside the classroom, which can improve their knowledge by understanding others perspective.

7. Having a learner-centered curriculum in mind, answer the following questions below:

What possible skills, knowledge, and values are emphasized in the curriculum?
- ​Social skills, life skills and learning skills is being developed in the learner-centered curriculum, it emphasizes to allow the students to have a life long learning, and a knowledge that they can apply in the real-life circumstance. Every students in a learner-cented curriculum should have respect to one another and the acceptance towards the diversity of perspectives, beliefs and views.

What possible learning experiences can be provided?
- ​Experiential learning should be provided in a learner-centered curriculum, for example letting the students do the actual inspection of plants on identifying its parts.

What about the learning environment?
- ​The learning environement in a learner-centered curriculum should be engaging, intersesting and would really help and motivate the students on learning.

What are the requirements of the curriculum for the teachers?
- ​This curriculum recquires teacher to be creative enough on implementing their method of teaching specifically on giving activities to the students, should be flexible about the subject matter and should limit theirselves just to guide the students on the right thing to do since in this curriculum they serves as the facilitator.

8. Name a school nearby that uses problem-centered design.
- ​Visayas State University, Tolosa Campus

9. Name some benefits and issues related to its implementation.
​- Through the problem-centered design, the VSU Tolosa has addressed the issue about the global pandemic, which allows the students to continue learning despite the situation. However, challenges exist anytime and everywhere where the poor internet connection becomes a problem to the students on learning, and attending classes online, but somehow, through the consideration of the intructors, students are able to overcome the challenge.

10. Identify some current issues and problems that can be used as a theme for a problem-based curriculum.
- ​COVID 19
- ​Political issue

    Learning Task 2.1

    1. Choose a linear curriculum development model and identify the possible strengths and weaknesses of each model when applied to the Philippine context.
    - Tyler's Rational Linear Model
    Strenghts: This model is very common in the Philippines, it is already being used in this country. It is good being used in this country since we are promoting the learner-centered teaching in this generation. This model has a great advantage since its development focuses on the learning experience of the students and the evaluation. This evaluation addresses the needs of the students which is a great factor to consider on decision making towards the learning of the students.
    Weaknesses: It is disadvantageous when applied in Philippines since it overlooks the unpredictable nature of teaching and learning.

    2. Choose a cyclical curriculum development model and identify the possible strengths and weaknesses of each model when applied to the Philippine context.
    - Nhicolls and Nhicolls Model of Curriculum Developments
    Strenght: It enables teachers, administrators, and education boards to address curricular issues and propose innovations
    and changes when necessary, which the teachers nowadays are promoting.
    Weaknesses: The tendency for teachers in higher education may find this model time-consuming because of the situational analysis required before developing any syllabus.

    3. Which among these dynamic curriculum development models can be applied in the Philippine context?
    - Among the dynamic corriculum development models, Skilbek's curriculum development model is the one that is applicable in the Philippine context. This model's stages is similar to the commonly used stages in the Philippines when developing a curriculum. This design advocates a framework where teachers can modify and transform learners experience which is a thing being promoted in a classroom setting.

      Learning Task 2.2

      From the interview that I have conducted, the teacher has emphasized that in DepEd they are given a certain curriculum that they need to follow. Today, that we are facing pndemic they are following the MELC Curriculum (Most Essential Learning Competencies), this is based on the K-12 Curriculum which is simplified for the modular, online or blended learning. In this curriculum they are given certain objectives to be achieved by the learners, and as a field teacher, it is their job to implement it to their learners in their own creative way. They always make lesson plan to monitor if those objectives are met and analyze strategies that are effective.

      Learning Task 3.1

      1. In what way the Indonesian educational system and Philippines' similar?
      - Same with Indonesia, Philippines is a country that is rich in diversity, that schools in both nation encourages the preservation of the learner's culture despite the advancement of technologies. Actions made in school on the preservation of culture are supported by the local government, with the school maintaning its satisfactory. The indonesian educational system and the Philippine educational system both gives importance on curriculum evaluation in order identify shortcomings and weaknesses of the curriculum to promote the essence of schooling that also gives access to the teachers in improving professional competence as teachers.

      2. Summarize the methodology used on evaluating a curriculum.
      - The research and development model used is the Borg & Gal (1983) model consisting of 10 simplified steps into four steps:
      (1) initial investigation,
      (2) design stage,
      (3) expert validation and;
      (4) trials, evaluations, and revisions

      3. What tools were used to derive results?
      - Data were collected using focused group diacussion (FGD) techniques and the researcher has developed questionnaire where, in assuring its content validty they have it checked by experts. In data analysis the researchers used the Aiken V formula, confirmatory factors and Cronbach's Alpha reliability.

      4. What did the evaluators found out from the results of the study?
      - The evaluators found out that the instrument developed to evaluate local content curriculum is effective. The instrument is comprehensive, easy to use, accurate in obtaining information about the weaknesses and strengths of the local curriculum and is very beneficial to governments and schools. Hence, the result of validation by the expert, the validity and reliability analysis on small-scale trials shows that there are invalid items that cannot be used to evaluate the curriculum. The results of the analysis of large-scale trials show that all constructs derived from the FGD and the study of literature have a value of valid and reliable instrument that can be used to evaluate the local curriculum. The developed measurements meet the statistical Goodness of Fit criteria. The instruments have been developed effectively to evaluate local curriculum developed by local governments.

      5. What conclusion can you draw from the study?
      - Through the study, I conclude that developing a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate a curriculum is very important in every school. Stakeholders benefit from the result of curriculum evaluation which is generally for the improvement of the performance of schools.