MODULE 1: Understanding Curriculum


Teachers play a critical role in the curriculum development process. The teacher's role is to help students develop and form positive relationships with the material. Classroom teachers are expected to strictly adhere to the programmatic curriculum's standards, frameworks, and guidelines. Furthermore, teachers must work hard to create interactions between the teacher and the learner. They must develop a lesson plan that includes simulations, experiments, or any other activities that will aid in curriculum delivery. Curriculum planning, on the other hand, would be useless in the absence of administrators or outside agencies. They must collaborate with learners and parents to develop curricular visions and translate those visions into operational frameworks. They must generate new ideas and improve their thinking ability and capacity for reflection. They can then choose whether or not to alter the classroom curriculum. Some of us must attend school these days.The four purposes of schooling are as follows: academic - individuals attend school to gain knowledge; political and civic purposes - learners want to be well-informed, to become active citizens, and to have the opportunity to change the context of the world; social mobility - learners want to get to know others through socializing. Individuals, particularly students, benefit from curriculum. It helps students prepare for current and future challenges of the social and political order because curriculum planning is linked to larger issues that influence school change and improvement significantly. Learners must also develop their ability to take initiative and stay current on technological advancements. They must work with students and parents to create curricular visions and then translate those visions into operational frameworks. They can then decide whether or not to change the curriculum in the classroom.

External link



1. Name other subjects or disciplines as examples of subject design.
— MAPEH ( Music, Arts, PE, Health)
— TLE ( Technology Livelihood Education)

2. Name other subjects or disciplines as examples of the different types of integrated curriculum design.
— History, Geography
Physics, Biology, Chemistry, Zoology, Astronomy, Medicine, Astrophysics, Earth Sciences
— Self, society

3. Give some advantages and possible pitfalls of subject design and integrated design.
—The possible advantage of integrated design is that learners learn more via subject integration. However, one of it's potential drawbacks is that some learners may struggle to cope with the subject integration.
—The possible advantage of subject design is that it focuses on one general knowledge. However, one potential disadvantage is that they may struggle to adjust to other subject areas.

4. Name some schools nearby you that use a learner-centered curriculum.

5. How do students learn in a learner-centered curriculum?
— Learner-Centered Curriculum focuses on the needs, nature, and interests of the learners in the curriculum and aims to develop the learners' potentials and abilities, making the curriculum relevant and responsive to them. Students learn through an understanding of their own learning style, with the facilitator as a guide.

6. What are some benefits of having a learner-centered curriculum?
— Personalised Learning
—Courses are interactive
—Learning is self- paced
—Improves knowledge retention
—Enhances problem solving skills

7. Having a learner-centered curriculum in mind, answer the following questions below:

What possible skills, knowledge, and values are emphasized in the curriculum?
— Critical thinking skills
— Creativity

What possible learning experiences can be provided?
— The ability to apply knowledge to a real-life problem.

What about the learning environment?
— A learner - friendly environment
What are the requirements of the curriculum for the teachers?
—Serve as a facilitator
—Offer assistance
—Encourage students to teach themselves.
— Plan genuine activities

8. Name a school nearby that uses problem-centered design.D

9. Name some benefits and issues related to its implementation.
— The potential benefits of problem-centered design in implementation are that learners apply necessary skills and knowledge while also engaging in current social issues.

10. Identify some current issues and problems that can be used as a theme for a problem-based curriculum.



Learning Task 2.2
Direction: Answer the following questions on your E-portfolio. Each item is worth 10 points each.

1. Choose a linear curriculum development model and identify the possible strengths and weaknesses of each model when applied to the Philippine context.
The linear curriculum development that I've chosen is STANDARD - BASED CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT MODEL (Allan Glatthorn 1924- 2007)
The possible strengths are:
— It encourages high expectations for all students.
— They broaden the learner's knowledge base.
The possible weaknesses are:
— They are only concerned with the outcome.

2. Choose a cyclical curriculum development model and identify the possible strengths and weaknesses of each model when applied to the Philippine context.
The cyclical curriculum development model that I've chosen is WHEELER'S CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT MODEL ( Daryl Kenneth Wheeler 1912- 1996)
- The possible strengths are:
— It is necessary to acquire new information in order to indulge.
— It provides feedback
The possible weakness is:
- time intensive

3. Which among these dynamic curriculum development models can be applied in the Philippine context?
The dynamic Curriculum development model that I've chosen is SKILBECK'S CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT MODEL ( Malcolm Skilbeck)
The possible strength is:
— Offer insights into cultural values and symbolic systems
The possible weaknesses is:
— Do not have a specific goal

External link



1. In what way are Indonesia’s educational system and the Philippines similar?
— All subjects under all general topics of education, language and literature, natural sciences, social sciences, arts, and humanities, will be taught from first grade to twelfth grade, with the exception of chemistry, which will be taught from first grade to ninth grade in both Indonesia and the Philippines. Students' standard test results, as well as the National College Entrance Examination for college students, fell short of the target mean score. Even though educational systems are similar, there are still gaps in educational quality, particularly when it comes to technology and learning materials, among other things.

2. Summarize the methodology used in evaluating a curriculum.
— The goal of this study is to create a questionnaire instrument to evaluate local curriculum implementation developed by the local government. The Borg and Gal (1983) model was used for research and development, and it consists of 10 simplified steps divided into four steps: 1 initial investigation, 2 design stage, 3 expert validation, and 4 trials, evaluations, and revisions. Initially, qualitative research with a phenomenological approach was used. The FGD's goal is to collect constructs that can be used to evaluate the local curriculum. According to the FGD findings, several factors became the basis for evaluating the local curriculum, namely government support, school support, student motivation, equipment, materials, and funds are summarized as resource factors, teacher preparation, implementation, formative assessment, and summative assessment are summarized as process factors, and students' knowledge, student attitudes, student skills, and entrepreneurial desires are summarized as resource factors. The instrument design phase was carried out by creating a questionnaire. The validation phase seeks to determine the validity of the developed questionnaire's contents. Purposive sampling was used in this study. A questionnaire was used in this study as an instrument.

3. What tools where used to derive results?
— The tools used to generate the results are questionnaires.

4. What did the evaluators found out from the results of the study?
— The expert's validation results show that 7 items are invalid and cannot be used to evaluate the local curriculum. The validity and reliability analysis on small-scale trials reveals three invalid items, two of which are resource factors and one of which is an output factor.

5. What conclusion can you draw from the study?
— The study demonstrates similarities in the educational systems of Indonesia and the Philippines in terms of subjects taught from first grade to twelfth grade, with the exception of chemistry, which will be taught from first grade to ninth grade. The tool designed to assess local content curriculum is effective. The instrument is comprehensive, simple to use, and accurate in determining the weaknesses and strengths of the local curriculum, making it extremely useful to governments and specially the schools.

Learning Task 2.2


The DepEd Teacher that I've interviewed is Ms. Carla Capili a Master Teacher I in Cabacungan National High School.

Cabacungan National High School is an institution that caters quality education and ensures that no child will be left behind . We've been adopting the new trends to meet the standards and needs of our learners.
In every school, we are implementing the curriculum that will fit our learners' level of needs and knowledge.. We implemented by following the process as follows:
First is the planning phase. In this phase, we conducted a sampling/ survey to identify the problems or issue in our students, in the school and teachers as well as the facilities. What are these issues? This will pertain on the possible hindrance in the delivery of curriculum.
Next is the analysis on the problems or issue and make a design or content of the curriculum that will help resolve the issue. The content may include the type of modality that will fit on the needs of the learners...
Then, evaluation on the design being made. This will be done through a pilot test to a random student or even to the overall population of the school.
Lastly, if the evaluation was a success, then comes the implementation of the said curriculum to the school..

This process has been adapted by the school for a very long time.. we don't just implement curriculum without it being tested or being evaluated because this will also hinder the total success of the school, especially the learning of our students.

External link