Overfishing by Mohamed

Justice for the fish

More than a third of the fish stocks around the world are being overfished and the problem is particularly acute in developing countries according to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
In 2017, 34.2% of the fish stocks of the world’s marine fisheries were classified as overfished, a “continuous increasing trend” since 1974 when it stood at just 10%.
Fish consumption accounts for a sixth of the global population’s intake of animal proteins, and more than half in countries such as Bangladesh, Cambodia, the Gambia, Ghana, Indonesia, Sierra Leone and Sri Lanka
We notice that sustainability is particularly difficult in places where hunger, poverty and conflict exist, but there is no alternative to sustainable solutions,” the FAO said.
“While developed countries are improving the way they manage their fisheries, developing countries face a worsening situation,” the FAO said.
Overfishing depletes stocks at a rate that the species cannot replenish and so leads to lower fish populations and reduced future production.
The FAO projected global per capita consumption would climb to 21.5 kg by 2030, a slowdown in the average annual growth rate to 0.4%, with a decline expected in Africa.

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There is Hope.

85 percent of fishermen are in Asia, 9 percent in Africa, and 4 percent in America,
In Africa, The Nambian Hake fishery has been exploited and the stock of fish was on the verge of collapse. The fishermen used credible research to better their practices. The fish stock is healthy and more than 10,000 jobs are ensured for the future generation. The other example is Indonesia. They have harnessed the power of data to fight to overfishing. The Peruvian Anchoveta fishery has launched two fishery improvement projects. In India, they have started a sustainable Seafood Network in 2020 to bring together scientists, international organizations, politicians, fishermen, and academics to raise awareness.

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What is happening in my own Backyard

The United States

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The Magnuson Act


Originally signed into law in 1976, the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSA) arose out of concern for the status of coastal fish stocks, the need to prevent overfishing, and the protection of essential habitat. The act was amended in 1996 and reauthorized in 2007.
To prevent more fisheries from collapsing and to protect domestic fishermen from foreign competition,
Congress passed the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSA) to establish federal management of the nation's fisheries and restrict fishing activities in U.S. waters.
The Magnuson–Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act is the primary law that governs marine fisheries management in U.S. federal waters.

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They are 32 thousand species of fish in the world.

I focused on the Pink Salmon for this website as a connecting point in my website for overfishing. They are also native to Washington.

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Pink Salmons

Pink salmon are the smallest of the Pacific Salmon species
They are a bright silver color
When spawned their color changes to a dull green color.
Pink salmon thrive in temperatures that range between 5.6 and 14.6°
Male pink salmons develop a large hump in their back during spawning season
They are the smallest at spawning in the pacific during the fall.
They also
The pink salmon fish have an adipose fin.
The males tend to develop a humpback during spawning migration
The maximum recorded length for the fish is 6.8 kg and the maximum length was 76 inches.
The Pink Salmon isn't an endangered species whatsoever in fact the species is thriving with a population of 445 million. But due to industrialization, overfishing, increasing bacterial colonies, rising temperatures, blocked off routes of transportation, antidepressants in the water stream, and hatcheries the population is depressing(no pun intended). The reason why the decrease in populations is decreasing is because of the dangers to the fish, ie as soon as the fish overcomes With the increase of bacteria, it now has to deal with blocked off routes

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Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus Gorbuscha) hatch in streams and rivers.
They do not dwell in the Freshwater where born, as fry Pink salmon migrate to estuaries and then to Oceans.
Once they arrive at the Ocean they began to eat voraciously to support their rapid growth.
Around 1½ after dwelling in the Ocean, the fish then return to freshwater to spawn (August to October).
To spawn, females forge nests in the riverbed, to do this they passionately turn their sides to form a shallow hole.
The female then deposits her eggs in the nest created ( the number of eggs on average range from 1200-1900), the males then fertilize these eggs.
Once fertilized the mothers stay to defend the eggs and generally die 2 weeks after fertilization occurs.
Fun fact: “Because the pink salmon life cycle is so regular, independent populations spawn in even and odd years. For example, in the southern part of their range, they usually spawn in odd years in most river systems. However, pink salmon do spawn in even years in some Puget Sound rivers.”( Noaa.gov)

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When other salmons have a longer cycle, The pink salmon has the shortest lifespan, It’s scientific name is Oncorhynchus gorbuscha. This Salmon species are very small and the most abundant of the Pacific Salmon. The scientific name is based on the Russian name (rop6yw) which means in Russian (humble) The Pink Salmon goes to the oceans and has the ability to threaten Pacific Salmon. In the waters near Washington, the stock of this species is diminishing. With its bright color, we would be losing what makes this ocean beautiful. Alaska, these salmon are stable and are not endangered. However, in California and Washington, these fish are being caught before they can complete their cycle of reproduction.
These fish are native to Pacific and Arctic waters, The other unique facts are they are one of a species that die before any other Pacific Salmon species., These fish are more likely to be forgotten because they are small and people think that it wouldn’t make a difference for these fish to heal. These salmon fish need to be left alone so they can restore their population
“the fish have lost about 40 percent of their range and have declined markedly in abundance at the southern end of their distribution. They are in such jeopardy that one or more runs of all the species except pink salmon have been listed under the federal Endangered Species Act.”(Thomas Quinn)
Summer Dungeness River (Strait of Juan de Fuca) pink salmon return earlier than fall Dungeness River pink salmon and spawn above RKm 16, about 11 km upstream from the fall fish spawning in the lower river (Johnson 1973, WDF et al. 1993). Some Dosewallips River Pink Salmon (Hood Canal) migrate more than 15 km upstream to spawn.

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