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Article: Curriculum Planning and System Change(Reflection)

Learning Task 1.2
Article: Curriculum Planning and System Change (Reflection)
Direction: Read and Reflect on the above article and write a reflection. Be guided by the following questions.
1. What roles do teachers play in curriculum planning?
2. What are the roles of administrators in curriculum planning?
3. What are the purposes of schooling?
4. How well does the curriculum prepare students to meet the current and future challenges of the social and political order?

Curriculum planning is the decision-making process concerning the substance of schooling, that is the knowledge, skills, and dispositions that constitute the experience and outcome of schooling. In curriculum planning, there are different departments that is also part in deciding and operating the school system. The roles of teachers in curriculum planning, they are able to share and apply knowledge and materials to the students. School teachers are part in implementing the documents and materials in classroom. They articulate their own visions and goals of teaching to develop their own curriculum materials in the light of their visions and goals, and put the materials into practice with students. For me, it’s a big role for the teachers to make and plan for the students and at the same time they follow the rules regulated in the curriculum planning goals.
In implementing the curriculum, of course, the heads and school administrators are the first to initialize in implementation, which, they are the one who provide the needs of school. They analyze the quality of existing curricula and work towards improvement. They tend to report on curriculum developments, communicate with education professionals and perform administrative duties. They ensures teachers have the equipment and resources necessary to deliver educationally effective curriculum. As the curriculum changes, improvement of the school system is the priority. Heads and school administrators plays a big role in implementing this, as they prioritize the improvement of the students in the society.
School is an institution who needs to bear in contributing to the common good of a society. It compromises the three domains of curriculum, so that the system could function if it has the domains of curriculum. Schooling is a vital part of all people in the world, as it is the main requirement for applying a job. The institutional curriculum, programmatic curriculum, and classroom curriculum, they impart a big role for educational system, which can provide the needs of the students as well as staffs and the part of school system. It articulates he aims, purposes, ideals and expectations of public schooling. Also, it clarifies the ideological for curriculum decision-making and normative, hence the involvement of teachers use of curriculum materials adopted by the school system. This serves as the mission and vision of schooling as a vital part in the society.
Implementing the changes in curriculum planning for the improvement of school system, of course it covers also the future outcomes of the students in the social and political order. Imparting the three basic domains of curriculum, it highly implied already to bring about significant curricular change, or by implication, system change. As they provide the students needs and give the best for them to be able to acknowledge the current state of he happenings of the society. Providing the essential materials, subjects, knowledge can already have and prepare for the future challenge.

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Learning Task 2.1

Learning Task 2.1
Direction: Answer the following questions on your E-portfolio. Each item is worth 10 points each.

1. Choose a linear curriculum development model and identify the possible strengths and weaknesses of each model when applied to the Philippine context.


- Tyler’s Linear Model
- Which composes the four components; the objectives, activities, organization of activities, and evaluation. This model’s selection of objectives was based in philosophical and psychological criteria. This model is somewhat related to the curriculum we have here in Philippines. It has a clear direction for development process, which is easy to adapt with it’s logical sequence.
- Strengths:
• curriculum developer with a clear direction for development process
• It is simple which is easy to follow
- Weaknesses:
• Some find the selection of objectives from the three possible sources ambiguous and considered it as a weakness but others find it to be strength of the model as well.

2. Choose a cyclical curriculum development model and identify the possible strengths and weaknesses of each model when applied to the Philippine context.


- Wheeler’s Model
- This covered the elements of curriculum briefly but succinctly. This is a practical guide(1978), devised a straight forward cyclical approach.
- In this model, it was argued that, “change should e planned and introduced on a rational and valid basis according to a logical process” (Nicholls & Nicholls, 1978).
- Strengths:
• Logical sequential structure
• Situational analysis as a strong print
• Model is flexible
• Less rigid, more relevant
- Weaknesses:
• Logical and sequential nature
• A fundamental problem in utilizing such model is the amount of the required to undertake an effective situational analysis.

3. Which among these dynamic curriculum development models can be applied in the Philippine context?


- Skilbeck’s Curriculum Development Model
- This can be applied in Philippine Context, because of simply shows the learner-centeredness. It advocate a cultural framework design, where teachers can modify and transform learners experience by providing insights into cultural values, interpretative frameworks, and symbolic systems. This can be advantage to the students, where more experiences, more gaining of knowledge and learnings.
- This model can start in any phase, but in every phase you choose, it will still follow a systematic sequence, for it is interconnected.
- The situational analysis results provide strong basis for making curriculum decisions for all the subsequent phases of curriculum development.

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Learning Task 2.2

Learning Task 2.2 Curriculum Implementation
Direction: Answer the following questions on your E-portfolio. Each item is worth 10 points each.

1. Interview a DepEd teacher and about their process of school level curriculum implementation practices. Use the roles and functions identified on this lesson. Determine teacher roles as a curriculum worker on your e-portfolio.

Interviewee: Mr. Jason M. Saculo, Elementary Teacher in Calipayan Elementary School

Interviewer: Sheila S. Tabuyan

*Interview Question & Answer*

1. As a DepEd teacher, what DepEd Order do you follow?
- I follow the DepEd Order No. 36,s. 2016

2. As a DepEd teacher, what components do you consider in grading?
- As a teacher, I always consider the growth of every learners based on the performance, written works and quarterly exam. But also sometimes for extra curricular grades, I let them joined some school activities for them to practice heir capabilities and for their grades.

*Follow up question: how about this time of pandemic, what DO do you follow?
- This time of pandemic, there is a new DepEd Order released in May 2020 for school system, but I forgot the DO.

3. As a teacher how do you manage your plan for teaching?
- For me, of course, making lesson plan first for my everyday lecture and I also make my IM’s and I always make sure to discuss properly, so that my students will understand the lesson.

*Follow up question: how about in this time of pandemic?
- At this time of pandemic, I still based on their performance, but since they are in their home and they have modules. As a teacher, I’ve conducted Home Visitation for every learners to monitor their progress. Since it is now the new implementation in DepEd to monitor always our students, to know if they are learning. We always focused on our students progress at home.

4. Is it important to discuss the grading system to students and the parents at the beginning of the school year or semester? Why?
- For me it is important. The reason is that, for them to be guided on the expected outcome of the pupils for a particular year.

- Teachers- serve as the daily implementors of a planned curriculum through developing lesson plans, or unit plans, yearly, and syllabus.

- After the interview with teacher Jason M. Saculo, I could say that he really follows the role as a teacher.following the curriculum implementation, guiding and facilitating students according to curriculum and as focused on the process of learning. Curriculum workers are not just to implement and to obey, they are also considering the wellbeing of the students,school system,facilities, materials and all. Taking initiative to what does need to follow are the good serve to the nation.

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Article-The Instrument Developed to Evaluate Local Curriculum in Indonesia

1. In what way is Indonesia's educational system and the Philippines' similar?
- It is the importance of culture, imparting it to have a good knowledge for students.
- Having the local governments have the part to maneuver the school for a good monitoring, which Philippines and Indonesia's educational system similar., decentralization of education makes the school familiar and understand it's beauty and it's own characteristics or culture.
- both countries also have similarity about the local curriculum which made by local government, which local government coordinate with schools to realize the curriculum developed by the regions.

2. Summarize the methodology used in evaluating a curriculum.
- In evaluating a curriculum, research on instrument development is used to evalate local curriculum develop by local government. The purpose of the research is to produce an instrument of a questionnaire to evaluate local curriculum implementation developed by the local government. They used the Borg & Gal (1983) model which has 10 steps that they made it into 4 steps for the research and development model. They used qualitative research with the phenomenological approach for for initial investigations and data were collected for using focused group discussion (FGD), which consist of 14 participants (6 vice principals, 8 local curriculum teachers). The purpose is to obtain construct tto used to evaluate the local curriculum, which tends to have several factors to become the basis for evaluating the local curriculum. Instrument design phased was conducted by developing questionnaire. Validation phase conducted by 2 evaluation experts and 8 practitioners. It is to see the validity of the contents of the develop questionnaire. He sampling technique used is the purposive sampling for the senior high school students who implemented the local curriculum. The instruments used in this study is a questionnaire, hat was developed and then validated by experts. The data analysis used was 4 phases, these are the; data analysis of investigation phase, data analysis of expert validation phase, data analysis of small-scale trial data, and data analysis of the larger scaletrial.

3. What tools where used to derive results?
- Using the questionnaire for instrument and the data analysis used namel; data analysis of investigation phase, data analysis of expert validation phase, data analysis of small-scale trial data, and data analysis of the larger scaletrial.

4. What did the evaluators found out from the results of the study?
- with the results gathered, the assessment of the vice principal and the local government curriculum teacher, the average score was obtained from 3.22 to 3.61. Principals and teachers assess all aspects of the effectiveness of the instruments are in 'very good and good' category. The assessment to them indecates that the instruments develop are effective in obtaining information about the local curriculum.

5. What conclusion can you draw the study?
- From the making and validating instrument to use for the said study, it is well effective as it come up a good result, which obtain it an accurate data on local curriculum implementation.

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