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Subha 👆

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How Body’s own Immune System Starts Fight Against Cancer

A groundbreaking study led by engineering and medical researchers at the university of Minnesota Twin Cities shows how engineered immune cells used in new cancer therapies can overcome physical barriers to allow a patient’s own immune system to fight tumors. The research could improve cancer therapies in the future for millions of people worldwide.

Instead of using chemicals or radiation, immuno therapy is a type of cancer treatment that helps the patients immune system to fight against Cancer. ‘T Cells’ are a type of white blood cell that are of key importance to the immune system. Cytotoxic ‘T Cells’ are like soldiers who search out and destroy the targeted invader cells

While there has been success in using immunotherapy for some type of cancer in the blood or blood producing organs. But the job of a T Cell is much more difficult in solid Tumors. Advanced Gene editing technologies are used in engineer cytotoxic T Cells to change the DNA of the T Cells so they are better able to overcome the Tumor’s barriers. The ultimate goal of this process is to slow down the cancer cells and speed up the engineered immuno cells. The researchers are working to create cells that are good at overcoming different kinds of barriers in near future.

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The CRISPER Technology

CRISPER/ Cas9 Technology or Method

Previous year’s Nobel prize in Chemistry is being awarded to Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jenuffer A. Doudna for the development of the CRISPER method for gene editing.

The full form of CRISPER is - Clustered Regularly Intersaped Short Palindromic Repeats.

The double stranded DNA attached themselves with some H-bond. Adenine base always attached with Thymine (A-T) & the Cytosine base is always attached with Guanine (C-G).

* What Is CRISPER - In leaving cell it is very difficult to cut the gene and replace it with a new gene. But recently the researchers has developed such a method in which the genome of any kind of species, including human can be edited easily. This method is Called CRISPER method. This method is actually seen in a Bacteria’s body named Streptoccus pyogenes. It protects itself from viruses with the help of this method.

* How It Works - When the Bacteria’s body detect any DNA of virus, it send a piece of RNA to guide the virus DNA. This piece of RNA is called guide RNA, which has a matching sequences with the viral DNA. This Guide RNA makes a complex with the help of Cas9 Protein. Cas9 protein is a type of necluese protein which works as an Enzyme and it has the ability to cut the DNA. When the Guide RNA and the viral DNA pairing themselves, the Cas9 protein become activated and cut off the viral DNA. So the viral DNA now become non functional. When the cut is repaired mutations are introduced that usually disable or turn off a Gene.

Now the cleaving of a DNA can be controlled so that they can cut any DNA molecules at a predetermined site. Where the DNA molecules is cut it is than easy to rewrite the new code of life. With the help of this method we can change the DNA of animals, plants and microorganisms with extremely high precision. This technology has had a revolutionary impact on the Medical Sciences by contributing a new cancer therapies and may make the dream of curing inherided diseases comes true in near future.

Using Ice In Injuries Is Good Or Bad 🤔🤔

In sports we Commonly apply ice to sore muscle in order to reduce inflammation. However a new study revealed that Icing severe muscle injuries may actually prolong the healing process.the results indicate that pulling the muscle make it difficult for macrophages to enter into the damage cells, to repair them.

The research results disclosed that applying an ice pack in a muscle injury resulting from eccentric contraction may delay the healing time of your injury.

The cause of this phenomenon is that I think delays the arrival of pro-inflammatory macrophages which are responsible for phagocytosis, or removal of damaged cell.

Discovered by,
Prof. Arakawa Takamitsu,
PhD Student, Kawashima Masato.
From Kobe University.
Source :- Internet & Recent News